Inhibitory Effect of One Period of Sub-Maximal Swimming Exercises on Cell Cycle in Lung Tissue of Wistar Rats Exposed To Tobacco Ketone-Derived Nitrosamine Carcinogen (NNK)
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1Department of Mathematics, University of Science and Technology of Mazandaran, P.O. Box Behshahr 48518–78195, Iran
2Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
3Laboratory Sciences Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences and Department of Exercise Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
It is believed that regular exercises are capable of affecting lung tissues exposed to carcinogens in cigarette smoke.
The present study aims at exploring the effect of 12 weeks of submaximal swimming on Cyclin D1 gene expression in the lungs of rats following the exposure to carcinogen NNK.
After physiological adaptation, 46 mature Wistar rats weighing105/84 ±27/93 g were randomly put into five groups of 10 including Exercise (E), (N) NNK, Exercise- (EN) NNK, Vehicle with injection of distilled water (V) and control (C). To habituate the rats to the water and the exercises conditions and to reduce swimming stress, they were immersed in the water pool for 10 to 30 minutes for a week. 12.5 mg / kg body weight NNK was injected to the E.N and N groups, subcutaneously once a week, for 12 weeks, and distilled water was injected into the vehicle group. Swimming exercise was also performed in E and E.N groups once daily (5 days a week) for 3 months. After isolating the lung tissue, cyclin D1 gene expression was performed by Real-time PCR-ABI. One way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc analysis were performed to compare the data at P ≤ 0/05.
Results: According to the results, cyclin D1 gene expression was relatively decreased in NNK + training (p = 0.0002) and vehicle (p = 0.0001) groups compared to NNK group. Nevertheless, the exercise, vehicle, and control groups were not significantly different. Sub-maximal swimming exercises relatively decreased cyclin D1 gene expression in lung tissue exposed to carcinogen NNK.
Seemingly, by reducing cyclin D1 in the cell cycle process, sub-maximal swimming exercise could reduce the carcinogenic role of NNK and along with other therapies could mitigate the negative effects of smoking.