Genome- and Microbiota-Based Sports Nutrition
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Paper ID : 1947-12THCONG
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Associate Professor in Molecular Exercise Physiology Department of Biological Sciences in Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti
Sports scientists, coaches, athletes, and active individuals are always looking for effective ways to enhance health status and success in competitions. Health and having a set of physical and mental abilities to perform daily activities and participate in sports events depend on genetic and environmental interaction. In other words, genetics-environmental interaction determines the health status and physical performance (Nature and Nurture).
However, coaches and athletes always try to design and conduct the training programs to achieve the necessary adaptations for participating and succeed in competitions. Regardless of the epigenetic changes caused by regular exercise training and environmental factors such as nutrition, these efforts will be ineffective. Therefore, nutritionists design diet plans according to exercise requirements and standard dietary guidelines (such as DRIs). However, the consequences induced by these diets are not the same, and sometimes even have inconsistent and contradictory results. For example, caffeine intake (3 to 6 mg/ kilogram/day) may improve physical performance for some people (Responders), and for others will be ineffective (non-responders), or it may cause physical and psychological complications. The incidence of these different responses by using the same plan and dietary guidelines lead scientists to Multiomics Analysis in sports nutrition. To meet nutrients requirements, they try to design and conduct personalized diet plans (Diet personalization) by studying the effects of genes on organism response to nutrients (Nutrigenetics) and nutrients effects on gene expressions (Nutrigenomics). Personalized diets may prevent not only the side effects of different nutrients does in human bodies but also may be an effective way to maintain and enhance physical performance.
Furthermore, gut microbiota (Billions of bacteria, fungi, archaea, protozoa, and gastrointestinal viruses) and related metabolites may be altered by exercise-induced stresses with different intensities, durations, and volumes, and it induces undesirable changes in health status and physical performance. For example, the weakness of gut microbiota (as dysbiosis) may lead to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, improving the gut microbiome (GM) status by using prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in the daily diet can be useful after Multi-Omics analysis. However, there are still some ambiguities and limitations regarding the use of nutrigenomics and personalized approaches for planning diets to improve health status and physical performance, which requires further studies in this area.