New physiological challenges and Barriers and Scientific Solutions to Achieve and Maintain the Optimal Weight

Oral Presentation
Paper ID : 1932-12THCONG
Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz
Management of weight is an ever-increasing challenge in societies where good tasting food is convenient, relatively inexpensive, and abundant. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone. The concept of dynamic energy balance and dietary approaches that can be successfully used with active and inactive individuals to facilitate weight loss, while retaining lean tissue and minimizing risks for disordered eating.
Emphasis is placed on teaching individuals the benefits of consuming a low-energy-dense diet (e.g. high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food that is satiating but reduces energy intake. Other dietary behaviors important for weight loss or weight maintenance after weight loss are also emphasized, such as eating breakfast, spreading food and protein intake throughout the day, eating after exercise, elimination of sweetened beverages, and avoiding fad diets.
Health professionals need to be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help the individuals achieve their bodyweight goals. Achieving energy balance and maintaining bodyweight should be easy – balance energy intake with energy expenditure. Achieving weight loss also appears to be simple – just increase energy expenditure and/or reduce energy intake.
So why isn’t it simple?
Why don’t people lose or gain lean tissue as we predict from our calculations?
What is the best approach to manage weight and weight loss in these different groups – those who are already lean and want to be leaner, while retaining lean tissue, and those who are overweight, who need to lose body fat but also want to retain lean tissue?
A common mistake made by many health professionals when explaining energy balance to active and inactive individuals is to assume that changing either side of the equation by 3,500 kcal (7,700 kJ) will always result in a pound (∼0.5 kg) of weight gained or lost, without considering all the other factors that might change as energy intake or energy expenditure is altered.
Thus, optimal bodyweight should promote good health and be ‘reasonable’ in terms of whether or not it can be achieved and maintained. If an individual is constantly dieting or repeatedly gaining and losing weight, they may be trying to achieve or maintain an unrealistic bodyweight.