Rib stress fractures among athletes: definition,epidemiology,risk factors and prevention strategies: A systemic Review Article

Poster Presentation
Paper ID : 1899-12THCONG
Oral / Poster Presentation File: Slide1.JPG 
1faculty of university of Hormozgan-Bandar Abbas
2professor of department of sport injury /Tehran university
Introduction: Stress fractures are a well-described consequence of athletic training. Athletes who make sudden changes or significant increases in their training programs are at risk for stress fractures, particularly in weightbearing bones.
Stress fractures of nonweightbearing bones occur less frequently. Stress fractures of the ribs have been previously
reported in throwing,golf, rowing, canoeing, and swimming.It is suggested that actions of the serratus anterior and
external oblique muscles on the rib cause stress fracture because of the repetitive bending forces.
methods: Searches were conducted from 2010 to 2020 years from databases of google scholar,
Since Direct, PubMed, PsycINFO, using keywords including Rib, Stress fracture,overuse injury,prevention,prototol ,risk factors.The present study is a systematic review method (PRISMA).
Results: out of 60 articles , 10 articles were selected based on the criteria for entering the study. These studies mainly examined risk factors and the effect of prevention protocols on Rib stress fracture in elite athletes .
conclusions:The main outcome of this review on Rib stress fracture is that little evidence on risk factors and preventive protocols. coaches and clinicians should carefully guide and assist athletes specially Rowers suffering from Rib stress fracture.However, the cause of rib stress fractures in athletes is likely multifactorial, involving some combination of repetitivemuscle contraction, joint hypomobility, low bone mineral density, excessive training, poor technique, equipment problems and amenorrhoea in female competitors. However, the greatest contributing factors are likely training errors, overuse, and the development of new equipment resulting in greater loads, faster racing speeds and increased injury risk.The rib cage is also stressed further by the repetitive nature of the rowing stroking,