Systematic review of the effects of exercise during pregnancy on reducing the physiological consequences of Covid 19
Assistant professor of exercise physiology at Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran
Pregnant women are among the most high-risk groups in the community in terms of Covid-19 disease; Because in general, during pregnancy, due to the increase in uterine volume and the increase in pressure on the respiratory system caused by the diaphragm, the respiratory function, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy, is associated with relative impairment. Hormonal and immunological changes during this period, along with anatomical changes, are effective in getting infectious diseases such as Covid-19 in these women. The aim of this study was to systematically review the history of studies on the effects of exercise during pregnancy on reducing the physiological consequences of Covid 19. In this review, all articles published in related databases were reviewed according to Prisma guidelines. The findings showed that women with underlying diseases, especially respiratory problems, hypertension, diabetes or HIV, were at higher risks of this disease. Although there is not enough evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission of Covid 19, in healthy pregnant women or with underlying problems, this infection may cause preterm birth, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RSD) and various types of infections. According to the recommendations of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), healthy pregnant women should include aerobic exercise in their weekly routine for 150 to 300 minutes regularly under the supervision of an exercise physiologist aware of pregnancy considerations after consulting a gynecologist. In addition, two sessions of resistance training, stretching and flexibility exercises per week are essential for pregnant women. According to the results of studies, exercise during pregnancy prevents gestational diabetes, especially in people with a body mass index greater than 33, prevents overweight pregnants, lowers blood glucose levels of diabetic pregnants, reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia, reducing low back pain, normal physical growth in newborns, increasing maternal mobility, increasing mental health and improving fitness and the quality of life in pregnant women. Also, common problems during pregnancy such as edema, leg cramps, fatigue, hypoxia and shortness of breath, insomnia and anxiety are reduced by regular exercise.