The Effects of Confirmative and Corrective Knowledge of Performance Approach on Effort Rate and Performance of Ping-Pong Service
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Paper ID : 1568-12THCONG
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1Assistant professor of Motor Behavior, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran
2Assistant professor of Motor Behavior, Military Science University, Tehran, Iran
3Ms.C. Student
Feedback presentation is one of approaches that facilitate the skill acquisition processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of confirmative and corrective knowledge of performance on effort rate and performance of ping-pong service.
For this purpose, the number of 48 reach high school students in Ghaletel village, in random assignment using pretest assigned into three groups: the confirmative feedback, corrective feedback and control (practice without feedback). This study included training, pretest, the acquisition and retention test. Participants in the pretest performed ten times services, and then completed an intrinsic motivation questionnaire. The acquisition includes thirty-four week period at each session and efforts were made in six categories of five trials. After the acquisition phase, participants completed intrinsic motivation questionnaires, and one weeks after the acquisition phase they completed retention test with ten trials without using feedback.
The analysis of data performed using analysis of variance with repeated measurements and ANOVA. The results showed that confirmative and corrective feedbacks had significant effect on acquisition (P=0.001, F=35.85) and learning (P=0.001, F=11.36) of table tennis service; but interestingly participants at the corrective group were better at acquisition phase and participants in the confirmative group were better at learning stage. Another aspect of results showed that participants at confirmative feedback group significantly attained higher effort rate.
Overall, the findings of this study showed that type of performance awareness feedback had different effects on intrinsic motivation and learning. Probably the best type of feedback should vary depending on the skill level of the learner, the length of the training period and the learning stages.