Comparison the effect of open and closed exercises on sustained Attention and working memory in children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder
1Assistant professor, Department of physical education and sport science, Kermanshah branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
2M.A in Psychology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with many difficulties in executive functions. The effect of physical activity with different perceptual needs on the improvement of these factors has not been investigated. Given the different physiological and cognitive needs of open and closed movement exercises, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of open and closed exercises on sustained attention and working memory of these children. Method: This study was quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design. Thirty children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder in Kermanshah city were randomly divided into two groups of open and closed exercise. Prior to the exercise protocol, all participants performed Wechsler Intelligence Test and pre-test of sustained attention and working memory. Participants in each group received their own one-hour training sessions for 12 weeks and three sessions per week. The instruments used in the study included Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Continuous Performance and N-Back Working Memory Test. Data analysis was performed using T test and covariance analysis test in spss23. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups in the sustained attention and working memory scores in the post-test. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be said that open skill training improved sustained attention and working memory over closed skill training. Given the better effects of open skills training on working memory and sustained attention for children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, more use of these motor activities in these children is suggested.