The effect of the type of training (errorless and errorfull) on the learning of golf-putting skill and self-efficacy in children with different motor and Cognitive ability
1Master Student of Physical education in Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2Assistant professor of Physical education in Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
The benefits of implicit and explicit motor learning approaches in young adults have been studied extensively, but much less in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise type (low and high error) on learning golf pot skills and self-efficacy in children with different motor and cognitive abilities. 120 students of the district 6 of Tehran who had no golf practice were selected. First, the motor and cognitive (working memory) abilities of children was measured. Secondly children with motor and cognitive abilities scores in the upper and lower quartile learned a golf-putting skill in either an errorless (implicit) or error full (explicit) learning condition. Four groups were formed: Errorless High-Abilities, Errorless Low-Abilities, Error full High-Abilities, and error full Low-Abilities. Learning consisted of 300 practice trials, while testing included a 50-trial retention test, followed by a 50-trial secondary task transfer test, and another 50-trial retention test. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and independent t-test was used for data analysis. Results showed no significant difference in acquisition phase, and significant difference in immediate and delayed retention phase, dual task transfer between the two training groups (P˂0.05). Also, t-test results showed no significant difference between self-efficacy in the two groups. Findings showed that errorless learning conditions were significantly more effective than error full learning without self-efficacy mediation for students with low motor and cognitive ability. Further research is recommended to examine the compatibility of implicit and explicit approaches for children of different abilities with CP or ADHD disorders.